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General Language Dictionaries

General Language Dictionaries Haluatko opiskella viestintaa monialaisissa koulutusohjelmissa ?

Vaasan yliopistossa on tarjolla monta uudenlaista mahdollisuutta yhdistaa viestintaan eri alojen opintoja saman tutkinnon sisalle englannista tietotekniikkaan ja suomesta markkinointiin: esittelyssa kandidaattiohjelma VINE ja maisterikoulutusohjelmat VIMA ja TEVI .

UUTTA kielista kiinnostuneille! Vuonna 2014 alkoi verkko-opintoina uusi suuntautumisvaihtoehto, jossa opiskellaan terminologiaa ja teknista viestintaa seka kaupallisia aineita. Sopii hyvin myos tyoelamassa oleville! Maisterihaku paattyy 27.2.2015. Lue lisaa..

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    General language Courses

    General language Courses

    General language courses at LSI provide language training in a group environment. These programmes will improve all areas of your language skills. You can also choose to specialise in a number of different areas.

    General & Intensive Language Courses

    Our general and intensive language courses are designed for those who want to learn a new language or develop their present knowledge for private, educational or professional reasons. We provide courses at all levels, from beginner to advanced and offer both part-time and full-time intensive courses.

    General 20
    • 20 lessons per week (4 lessons per day)
    • All levels*
    • 1 lesson: 50 minutes (45 minutes in Zurich)
    • 15 students max. per class (12 in Zurich)
    • Hours per week: 16.67#
    • Ages 16+
    • Available at all LSI schools

    If you want to combine your language studies with other activities, the General 20 Course is the ideal programme for you. During the lessons you will learn communication skills in a variety of everyday situations. The lessons cover grammar, vocabulary, pronunciation and skills practice in speaking, listening, reading and writing. We use a wide variety of materials and exercises including role-plays, authentic recorded material, newspapers and magazines. This course is offered in the mornings at all LSI centres.

    * No beginners in London Hampstead, Cambridge and Brighton.

    # 20 clock hours in the USA. A clock hour is defined as a 60-minute span of time, with no less than 50 minutes of actual class instruction. 15 hours in Zurich

    Intensive 24

    General-purpose language - это

    general-purpose language это: Смотреть что такое "general-purpose language" в других словарях:

    General Purpose Language — Der Ausdruck General Purpose Language (GPL Nicht zu verwechseln mit der GNU General Public License ebenfalls abgekurzt GPL) beschreibt eine Programmiersprache, die fur viele/alle Anwendungsfalle/Problemstellungen einsetzbar ist. In der Regel ist… … Deutsch Wikipedia

    general purpose language — programming language that is suitable for many different uses … English contemporary dictionary

    General-purpose modeling — (GPM) is the systematic use of a General Purpose modeling language to represent the various facets of an object or a system. Examples of GPM languages are: * the Unified Modeling Language (UML), an industry standard for modeling software… … Wikipedia

    General purpose datatypes — (GPD) are a collection of datatypes defined independently of any particular programming language or implementation. These datatypes can be used to describe interfaces to existing libraries without having to specify the language (such as Fortran… … Wikipedia

    General purpose macro processor — A general purpose macro processor is a macro processor that is not tied to, or integrated with, a particular language or piece of software.In its simplest form, a macro processor is a program that copies a stream of text from one place to another … Wikipedia

    General purpose markup language — A general purpose markup language is a markup language that is used for more than one purpose or situation. Other, more specialized markup languages are often based upon these languages: i.e. HTML being based upon the syntax of SGML.ListThe… … Wikipedia

    History of general purpose CPUs — The history of general purpose CPUs is a continuation of the earlier history of computing hardware. 1950s: early designs Each of the computer designs of the early 1950s was a unique design; there were no upward compatible machines or computer… … Wikipedia

    Language-oriented programming — is a style of computer programming, via metaprogramming in which, rather than solving problems in general purpose programming languages, the programmer creates one or more domain specific programming languages for the problem first, and solves… … Wikipedia

    language — /lang gwij/, n. 1. a body of words and the systems for their use common to a people who are of the same community or nation, the same geographical area, or the same cultural tradition: the two languages of Belgium; a Bantu language; the French… … Universalium

    General semantics — The term General Semantics refers to a non Aristotelian educational discipline created by Alfred Korzybski (1879–1950) during the years 1919 to 1933. General Semantics stands distinct from semantics, a different subject. The name technically… … Wikipedia

    General Judgment (Last Judgment) —     General Judgment     † Catholic Encyclopedia > General Judgment     (Judicium Universale, Last Judgment).     I. EXISTENCE OF THE GENERAL JUDGMENT     1. Few truths are more often or more clearly proclaimed in Scripture than that of the… … Catholic encyclopedia

    • Assessing Languages for Specific Purposes. Douglas Dan. Testing language for specific purposes (LSP) refers to that branch of language testing in which the test content and test methods are derived from an analysis of a specific language use… Подробнее Купить за 4852 руб
    • Email English. Paul Emmerson. Language practice: Based on hundreds of real emails, Email English deals systematically with key language for constructing effective and convincing emails in English. - Basics, including… Подробнее Купить за 1884 руб
    • Empower. Upper Intermediate Student's Book. Doff Adrian. Cambridge English Empower is a general adult course that combines course content from Cambridge University Press with validated assessment from Cambridge English Language Assessment. The… Подробнее Купить за 1490 руб
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    Lessons - Generals of Language

    Советы по изучению слов

    Ни для кого не секрет, что нельзя выучить иностранный язык, не зная самой базовой лексики. Зная самые распространенные слова и выражения, взаимопонимание с иностранцами увеличивается в несколько раз. Остается открытым вопрос: как учить слова? Есть более 15 методик изучения слов.  Начиная от обычной механической "зубрежки", и заканчивая  гипнозом. Все способы хороши и приемлемы. Но существует ряд правил при изучении слов.

    -        Нельзя  мучить свою память и учить язык механически! Итог: зря потраченные силы и нулевой результат.

    -        Память способна за один раз запоминать до 30 слов. (Создавайте словари на 30-40 слов. Не более.)

    -        Кратковременная память существует не более 30 секунд.

    -        Информация дольше сохраняется в кратковременной памяти, если протекает неосознаваемая нами информация.

    -        При изучении языка не опирайтесь на привычку или стандартность.

    -        После изучения порции слов нужен перерыв 10 минут.

    -        Чтобы лишить список слов однообразия, нужно их не только видеть, но и слышать.

    -        Выученные слова передается из кратковременной памяти в долговременную, не столько через повторение, сколько с помощью сюжетных картинок или звука.

    -        Легко делается то, что совершается непроизвольно, помимо нашего участия. Слова запоминаются непроизвольно, если они не будут целью нашей деятельности.

    Всем этим правилам отвечает аудио-методика.

    XML settings - Atmel Studio

    Atmel Studio General language options

    This dialog box allows you to change the default behavior of the Code Editor. These settings also apply to other editors based upon the Code Editor, such as the HTML Designer's Source view. To open this dialog box, select Options from the Tools menu. Within the Text Editor folder, expand the All Languages subfolder and then choose General.

    This page sets default options for all development languages. Remember that resetting an option in this dialog will reset the General options in all languages to whatever choices are selected here. To change Text Editor options for just one language, expand the subfolder for that language and select its option pages.

    A grayed checkmark is displayed when an option has been selected on the General options pages for some programming languages, but not for others.

    The dialog boxes and menu commands you see might differ from those described in Help depending on your active settings or edition. To change your settings, choose Import and Export Settings on the Tools menu. For more information, see Working with Settings.

    Statement Completion

    Auto list members

    When selected, pop-up lists of available members, properties, values, or methods are displayed by IntelliSense as you type in the editor. Choose any item from the pop-up list to insert the item into your code. Selecting this option enables the Hide advanced members option. For more information, see List Members.

    Hide advanced members

    When selected, shortens pop-up statement completion lists by displaying only those items most commonly used. Other items are filtered from the list.

    Parameter information

    When selected, the complete syntax for the current declaration or procedure is displayed under the insertion point in the editor, with all of its available parameters. The next parameter you can assign is displayed in bold. For more information, see Parameter Info.

    Enable virtual space

    When this option is selected and Word wrap is cleared, you can click anywhere beyond the end of a line in the Code Editor and type. This feature can be used to position comments at a consistent point next to your code.

    When selected, any portion of a line that extends horizontally beyond the viewable editor area is automatically displayed on the next line. Selecting this option enables the Show visual glyphs for word wrap option.

    Clear this option if you prefer not to display these indicators.

    These reminder arrows are not added to your code, and do not print. They are for reference only.

    Apply Cut or Copy commands to blank lines when there is no selection

    This option sets the behavior of the editor when you place the insertion point on a blank line, select nothing, and then Copy or Cut.

    When this option is selected, the blank line is copied or cut. If you then Paste, a new, blank line is inserted.

    When this option is cleared, the Cut command removes blank lines. However, the data on the Clipboard is preserved. Therefore, if you then use the Paste command, the content most recently copied onto the Clipboard is pasted. If nothing has been copied previously, nothing is pasted.

    This setting has no effect on Copy or Cut when a line is not blank. If nothing is selected, the entire line is copied or cut. If you then Paste, the text of the entire line and its endline character are pasted.

    To display indicators for spaces, tabs, and line ends, and thus distinguish indented lines from lines that are entirely blank, select Advanced from the Edit menu and choose View White Space.

    Line numbers

    These line numbers are not added to your code, and do not print. They are for reference only.

    Enable single-click URL navigation

    Generation of programming languages

    Table of Contents

    A language is a system of communication. A programming language consists of all the symbols, characters, and usage rules that permit people to communicate with computers. There are at least several hundred, and possibly several thousand different programming languages. Some of these are created to serve a special purpose (controlling a robot), while others are more flexible general-purpose tools that are suitable for many types of applications.

    Definition of Programming Language

    "A programming language is a set of written symbols that instructs the computer hardware to perform specific tasks. Typically, a programming language consists of a vocabulary and a set of rules (called syntax) that the programmer must learn".

    1 st generation of programming languages

    Machine language is the only programming language that the computer can understand directly without translation. It is a language made up of entirely 1s and 0s. There is not, however, one universal machine language because the language must be written in accordance with the special characteristics of a given processor. Each type or family of processor requires its own machine language. For this reason, machine language is said to be machine-dependent (also called hardware-dependent).

    In the computer’s first generation. programmers had to use machine language because no other option was available. Machine language programs have the advantage of very fast execution speeds and efficient use of primary memory. Use of machine language is very tedious, difficult and time consuming method of programming. Machine language is low-level language. Since the programmer must specify every detail of an operation, a low-level language requires that the programmer have detailed knowledge of how the computer works. Programmers had to know a great deal aobut the computer’s design and how it functioned. As a result, programmers were few in numbers and lacked complexity. To make programming simpler, other easier-to-use programming languages have been developed. These languages, however must ultimately be translated into machine language before the computer can understand and use them.

    2 nd Generation of programming languages

    The first step in making software development easier and more efficient was the creation of Assembly languages. They are also classified as low-level languages because detailed knowledge of hardware is still required. They were developed in 1950s. Assembly languages use mnemonic operation codes and symbolic addresses in place of 1s and 0s to represent the operation codes. A mnemonic is an alphabetical abbreviation used as memory aid. This means a programmer can use abbreviation instead of having to remember lengthy binary instruction codes. For example, it is much easier to remember L for Load, A for Add, B for Branch, and C for Compare than the binary equivalents i-e different combinations of 0s and 1s.

    Assembly language uses symbolic addressing capabilities that simplify the programming process because the programmer does not need to know or remember the exact storage locations of instructions or data. Symbolic addressing is the ability to express an address in terms of symbols chosen by the programmer rather than in terms of the absolute numerical location. Therefore, it is not necessary to assign and remember a number that identifies the address of a piece of data.

    Although assembly languages represented an improvement, they had obvious limitations. Only computer specialists familiar with the architecture of the computer being used can use them. And because they are also machine dependent, assembly languages are not easily converted to run on other types of computers.

    Before they can be used by the computer, assembly languages must be translated into machine language. A language translator program called an assembler does this conversion. Assembly languages provide an easier and more efficient way to program than machine languages while still maintaining control over the internal functions of a computer at the most basic level. The advantages of programming with assembly languages are that they produce programs that are efficient, use less storage, and execute much faster than programs designed using high-level languages.

    3 rd Generation of programming languages

    Third generation languages, also known as high-level languages, are very much like everyday text and mathematical formulas in appearance. They are designed to run on a number of different computers with few or no changes.

    Objectives of high-level languages

      To relieve the programmer of the detailed and tedious task of writing programs in machine language and assembly languages. To provide programs that can be used on more than one type of machine with very few changes. To allow the programmer more time to focus on understanding the user’s needs and designing the software required meeting those needs.

    Most high level languages are considered to be procedure-oriented, or Procedural languages, because the program instructions comprise lists of steps, procedures, that tell the computer not only what to do but how to do it. High-level language statements generate, when translated, a comparatively greater number of assembly language instructions and even more machine language instructions. The programmer spends less time developing software with a high level language than with assembly or machine language because fewer instructions have to be created.

    A language translator is required to convert a high-level language program into machine language. Two types of language translators are used with high level languages: compilers and interpreters.

    4 th Generation of programming languages

    Fourth generation languages are also known as very high level languages. They are non-procedural languages, so named because they allow programmers and users to specify what the computer is supposed to do without having to specify how the computer is supposed to do it. Consequently, fourth generation languages need approximately one tenth the number of statements that a high level languages needs to achieve the same results. Because they are so much easier to use than third generation languages, fourth generation languages allow users, or non-computer professionals, to develop software.

    Objectives of fourth generation languages

      Increasing the speed of developing programs. Minimizing user effort to obtain information from computer. Decreasing the skill level required of users so that they can concentrate on the application rather than the intricacies of coding, and thus solve their own problems without the aid of a professional programmer.
      Minimizing maintenance by reducing errors and making programs that are easy to change.

    Depending on the language, the sophistication of fourth generation languages varies widely. These languages are usually used in conjunction with a database and its data dictionary.

    Five basic types of language tools fall into the fourth generation language category.

      Query languages Report generators. Applications generators. Decision support systems and financial planning languages. Some microcomputer application software.
    Query languages

    Query languages allow the user to ask questions about, or retrieve information from database files by forming requests in normal human language statements (such as English). The difference between the definitions for query language and for database management systems software is so slight that most people consider the definitions to be the same. Query languages do have a specific grammar vocabulary, and syntax that must be mastered, but this is usually a simple task for both users and programmers.

    Report generators

    Report generators are similar to query languages in that they allow users to ask questions from a database and retrieve information from it for a report (the output); however, in case of a report generator, the user is unable to alter the contents of the database file. And with a report generator, the user has much greater control over what the output will look like. The user of a report generator can specify that the software automatically determine how the output should look or can create his or her own customized output reports using special report generator command instructions.

    Application generators

    Application generators allow the user to reduce the time it takes to design an entire software application that accepts input, ensures data has been input accurately, performs complex calculations and processing logic, and outputs information in the form of reports. The user must key into computer-useable form the specification for what the program is supposed to do. The resulting file is input to the applications generator, which determine how to perform the tasks and which then produces the necessary instructions for the software program.

    Decision support systems and financial planning languages combine special interactive computer programs and some special hardware to allow high level managers to bring data and information together from different sources and manipulate it in new ways.

    Some microcomputer applications software can also be used to create specialized applications – in other words, to create new software. Microcomputer software packages that fall into this category include many spreadsheet programs (such as Lotus 1-2-3), database managers (Such as dBase IV), and integrated packages (such as Symphony).

    5 th Generation of programming languages

    Natural Languages represent the next step in the development of programming languages, i-e fifth generation languages. The text of a natural language statement very closely resembles human speech. In fact, one could word a statement in several ways perhaps even misspelling some words or changing the order of the words and get the same result. These languages are also designed to make the computer “smarter”. Natural languages already available for microcomputers include Clout, Q&A, and Savvy Retriever (for use with databases) and HAL (Human Access Language).

    The use of natural language touches on expert systems, computerized collection of the knowledge of many human experts in a given field, and artificial intelligence, independently smart computer systems.

    AZERBAIJANI LANGUAGE

    Azerbaijani language is the state official language of Azerbaijan and the mean of linguistic communication of the 8 million population of the country (2001).

    Besides, Azerbaijani is also spoken by 20 million Azerbaijanis residing in the Islamic Republic of Iran. Several millions of Azerbaijanis reside in Russia, USA, Turkey and Western Europe. Regardless of their current country of residence, Azerbaijanis still can understand each other easily. There are over 30 million speakers of Azerbaijani at present.

    Genealogically, Azerbaijani language belongs to the Turkic group of languages and, together with closely associated Turkish, Turkmen and Gagauz languages, forms the southwestern group of Turkic languages.

    From the traditional-morphological and typological point of view, the Azerbaijani language belongs to the group of agglutinative languages. Unlike inflexional languages, all words of Azerbaijani as well as other agglutinative languages are lexically and grammatically independent units: grammatical meanings and grammatical relations are built by monosemantic inflexions which follow the stem and the root of a word.

    The Turks who make up the ethnic foundation of the Azerbaijani people appeared in the territory of the present Azerbaijan long before our century and in the early first millennium along with other numerous tribes were the ancient residents of these lands. The appearance of a nation of Turkish origin and speaking Azerbaijani language and the transformation of this language to a means of communication was a long process, covering several centuries.

    With the increase in the number of Turkish tribes as well as their economic, political and cultural influence the language was enriched and thus ethnic groups, that manage to preserve their ethnic and anthropological peculiarities even nowadays, united into a nation with a unique culture and language.

    The Azerbaijani language is one of the languages that had passed a long path of development. Regarding the epos Kitabi Dede Gorgut as the unwritten pattern of our literature, the age of the language serving the people as a means of communication can exceed 1300 years. Some materials point out that the history of written literary language of Azerbaijan commences with 13th century.

    Through the 800 years of its development, the Azerbaijani literary languages had passed through two main periods. The old period covers the 13th up to 18th century, while that one referred to as a new one started since 18th century and continues up to present times.

    The first stage is notable for a vast area of the usage of the Azerbaijani language. The palace and military Azerbaijani language used by Djelairids, Qaraqoyunlus, Aggoyunlus and Sefevi states was the literary language of the Asia Minor. The Azerbaijani language of this period differed from that of the new period not by its extra linguistic and linguistic properties.

    The vocabulary of the language of the first period was distinguished by the predominance of words of Arabic and Persian origin. The styles of the language of that period, especially the predominant genre of poetry and various stylistic devices caused the inflow of a great number of loan words in the literary Azerbaijani language. The establishment of schools of realism and realistic literary method and the formation of the latter as a leading creative caused disappearance of the loan words that did not join the vocabulary of the language.

    Moreover, the words of the Azerbaijani language, derived from the Osmanly language (shimdi (now), shoyle (such), shu (this, that), kendi (oneself) abandoned the language in the new period. That resulted from the full completion of the process of Turkish languages differentiation.

    The language of two periods differs by its phonetics . Thus, the new period was marked by the stabilization of the system of phonemes in the literary Azerbaijani language. The interchange of vowels o//a, and consonants h//q//x peculiar of the first period resulted in winning of the first (o and h) in the second period.

    The similar processes occurred in grammar . The interchange of inflexes of accusative case -yi, -y?, -yu, -yu///-ni, -n?, -nu, -nu typical of the literary language of the first period disappeared in the second period.The inflex of the future tense of the verb -is?r was replaced by the inflex -acaq//-?c?k.

    In the old Azerbaijani language word combinations mainly built on Arabia and Persian syntactic models: f?sli-gul (gul f?sli, blossoming season), t?rki-t?riqi-esq (esq t?riqinin (yolunun) t?rki, abandonment of the path of love), etc. In such constructions the attribute preceded the determinate. The second period is characterized by quite opposite process: the determiner is always used before the defined.

    In the first period the complex composite sentences with a subordinate clause, placed within the principal one, while in the second period such kinds of sentences were replaced by participle constructions.

    Both periods are themselves divided into a number of stages

    The first period of the development of Azerbaijani language passed two stages:

    1) formation of the literary language(13th-14th cc)

    2) flourish of the classical language of poetry (15th-18th cc)

    The second period covers three stages:

    1) nationalization of the literary language (18th century)

    2) establishment and development of the national language (19th-early 20th cc)

    3) present-day stage (20th-early 21st cc)

    New period. The second period was marked for the flourishing of the Azerbaijani language especially within the stage of the establishment and development of the national language. Along with poems the language was used in creating literary works, publishing newspapers and magazines and even in a number of official documents and scientific research. At that time foreigners, Russian and Germans displayed a great interest to this language and some of them started learning it. These were Russian poets Lermontov, Bestujev-Marlinski, German oriental scientist Bodonshtedt. The latter learned Azerbaijani language from the Azeri poet Mirza Shafi, translated his poems to German and published them in a separate book. Though the dictionaries of the old Azerbaijani language were compiled and grammatical researches were conducted in the Middle ages, the scientific works and text-books began to appear in the 19th century. Most famous of them is the work "General grammar of Turkish-Tatar language" by Mirza Kazymbey. The text-books by M.Vezirov, L.Buqagov, Q. Makarov, M.L.Mamedov, S.M. Ganiyev related to the Azerbaijani language were also written in Russian. L.Budaqov also compiled a dictionary in two volumes (Сравнителный словар турецко-татарских языков). The valuable work "F?nni-s?rfi-turki" ("The grammar of Azerbaijani language") by M.Ashrafly is also written in Azerbaijani.

    The 20th century was the flowering as well as the problematic period in the development of Azerbaijani language. At that very time Azerbaijani language faced a great problem. Since the beginning of the century three trends emerged in the literary Azerbaijani language. These are mainly related to the language of literary creations and press.

    1. The first trend attempted to bring the literary language as closer to the colloquial language as possible. This is proven by creative activity of Molla Nasreddin magazine and its collaborators (Dj. Mamedguluzade, A.Haqverdiyev and others). These creations do not differentiate between literary language and colloquial language and dialects. Such language is more understandable to ordinary people.

    2. the trend mainly focusing on the establishment of a literary language resting on the traditions of oil Azerbaijani language and the language of Osmanly Turks. This trend was mainly adhered by a number of magazines and newspapers as Fyuzat and Heyat and mainly by their collaborators (A.Guseynzade, Sabribeyzade and others). Yet, the people do not find it easy to understand such a language. This language almost did not differ from the old Turkish language.

    3. the trend, which propagandized the establishment of a literary language based on the norms of a literary language and understandable by everyone. This language was one not influenced by any dialect. It was created by such writers and poets as A.Shaig, Dj.Djabbarly, S.Guseyn, A.Sahhat. This situation lasted from early century till the 1930th.

    The third stage of the development of Azerbaijani language was marked by the attachment of the status of the state language to it.

    The national leader of the Azerbaijani people Heydar Aliyev played a great role in the declaration of Azerbaijani language the state language of the country. It is well known that Heydar Aliyev commenced his activity in the sphere of the state language with his first day of ruling the country (1969)

    Heydar Aliyev who had a profound knowledge of literary and colloquial Azerbaijani language, of its rich vocabulary and easily used its grammatical capacities, delivered brilliant speecher at a number of meetings as the celebration of the 50th jubilee of the Baku State University, the party conference of the same higher school and at other meetings held at a high level, thus gaining a great respect and love.

    He was perfectly aware of the fact that the respect and love he gained excited love and respect to the state language of Azerbaijan. All that created the atmosphere leading to the establishment of a state language.

    In 1977-1978 the leadership of the country faced a number of problems. As we know the new Constitution of USSR was approved in 1977. That very Constitution had to be an example to the new constitutions of all the countries and in fact it did. Yet the constitution did not contain an article on a state language. The newly approved constitutions of different republic did not cover this issue either.

    The situation in Azerbaijan was quite different. Heydar Aliyev continued his struggle for the Azerbaijani language to be declared the state language. The country leader could not bear the fact that the language is not incorporated into the constitution. Attracting the intellectuals and the entire population to the struggle, he put all efforts into it and overcame all obstacles with brevity.

    Heydar Aliyev, making a report at the seventh session of the Supreme Council of the Azerbaijan SSR, devoted to the draft constitution of the Azerbaijan Soviet Socialist Republic (the basic law) and the results of the national discussion, proposed the following amendment to the 73rd article: "Azerbaijani language is the state language of the Azerbaijan Soviet Socialist Republic".

    Azerbaijan Soviet Socialist Republic provides for the use of the Azerbaijani language in the State and social bodies, educational institutions and other establishments of Azerbaijan and promotes its comprehensive development.

    The constitution of 1978 proves that Heydar Aliyev really cared about his nation and his native land.

    The Constitution of independent Azerbaijan, accepted through national voting confirmed Azerbaijani language as the state language of the country:

    Article 21, The State Language.

    The state language of the Azerbaijan Republic is Azerbaijani language. Azerbaijan provides for the development of the Azerbaijani Language.

    Heydar Aliyev, who always attached a great importance to his native language and had a profound knowledge of it, considering the situation, created at the turn of the new period of the state language development, signed a decree "On perfection of measures for the use of the state language" on June 18, 2001.

    The said decree, along with reflecting the achievements of the language through the history of its development also determined existing problems of the language and pointed out the ways of their resolution.

    Some of these ways have already implemented successfully. The decree of President of the Azerbaijan Republic Ilham Aliyev signed on January 12, 2004 "On the publishing of mass media in Latin alphabet in Azerbaijani language will, undoubtedly, settle all the problems connected with the alphabet.

    Each of the three stages of the second period had its own peculiarities. As mentioned above, at present, the Azerbaijani language is used not only in Azerbaijan but also in Iran and Iraq. Folklore creations testify that the languages used by Azerbaijanis residing in these countries, do not differ much. However, the difference lies in literary languages and it's mainly reflected in printed literary creative works, newspapers and magazines, radio and TV programs. The difference is caused by historical and social reasons.

    A war between Iran and Russia resulted in signing two agreements Gulustan (1818), Turkmenchay (1827) which divided Azerbaijan in two parts. Thus, for nearly 200 years, two parts of one nation live separately and in quite different conditions and environment. Both Iran and Russia did not admit the relations between the two parts of the nation. Though Azerbaijan established definite relations after gaining independence, yet the difference is too deep especially in languages.

    Like other spheres, the difference lies also in literary language. The language of independent Azerbaijan still contains traces of Russian language, while the language of South Azerbaijan is influenced by the Persian language. At present, literary language of North and South Azerbaijan still differ in vocabulary, phonetics and in some way grammar (especially, in syntax)

    These differences are caused by some extralinguistic factors. Though Azerbaijan has been the part of Russia till 1991, the Azerbaijani language has been taught in secondary schools, institutes and universities for 76 years. The researches in the sphere of Azerbaijani language, its history and dialects were conducted intensively and hundreds and even more creative works were devoted to this topic in Azerbaijani language. It's possible to say that the most famous literary creations of all the nations beginning from the literature and philosophy of Ancient Greece up to present-day literary and scientific creations have been translated in Azerbaijani language. At present the text-books on all subjects (mathematics, physics, chemistry, medicine, etc) are written in Azeri or translated from other languages.

    Except for one or two newspapers and magazines, Azerbaijani language almost is not used in South Azerbaijan.

    The 3-4 centuries gap between Azerbaijanis and Iraq Azerbaijanis, remoteness of areas and disconnection caused the literary language to step on quite different paths. The literary language of Iraq Azerbaijanis is much influenced by the language of the present-day Turks.

    In recent years the formation and development of language of those residing in different countries is much influenced by the attempt to bring it closer to the literary language of Azerbaijan and the process is hoped to be successful.

    Modern Azerbaijani Language as one of the Turkish languages has a specific grammatical and phonetic properties. Due to the existence of the law of harmony in this language, front vowels (i,u,e,?,o) and back vowels (I, u, a, o), differing by the place of formation can not be used within the same word. (except for words like is?q, ild?r?m beginning with vowel i): at the same time the front vowels can not be used with velar consonants (k,q,g,x), while back vowels can nor follow dorsal consonants (g, k).

    The Azerbaijani language consists of 15 vowel and 25 consonant phonemes. These 40 phonemes are marked with 32 letters of the Azerbaijani alphabet.

    There are 9 short (i,u,e,o,?,a,o,u,?) and 6 long (i:,e:,o:,?. a:,u:) vowels in Azerbaijani language. Long vowels are not typical of this language and are mainly found in loan words.

    As a rule, phonetic accent falls on a last syllable. Phonemic accent does not depend on the lexical meaning of a word: 'alma (an apple)-alma' (don't take).

    The vowel ? and consonant g are not used at the beginning of a word in Azerbaijani language.

    The morphological system of Azerbaijani language includes notional parts of speech (nouns, adjectives, numerals, pronouns, adverbs, verbs) and secondary (postpositions, conjunction, particles, modal words, interjection).

    Nouns are characterized by the categories of number, possession, case and can be used as a predicate. These categories are typical of other substantiated parts of speech.

    The category of case consists of 6 cases (nominative, possessive, dative, accusative, ablative, prepositional). The verb has five tenses (the past indefinite tense, past declarative tense, present tense, future suppositional tense, future complete tense) and 6 forms of mood (order, wish, condition, necessity, importance, predicate).

    Depending on the relations between subject, object and predicate, verbs can be used in five grammatical voices (active, passive, reflexive, causative, interaction).

    According to the syntactical rules of Azerbaijani language, subject is used at the beginning of a sentence, predicate at the end, while attribute precedes the word it modifies.

    In Azerbaijani language words are forming by using morphological methods: (d?mirci (a blacksmith), uzumcu (Vine-grower), t?bligatc? (propagandist); d?mircilik (the profession of blacksmith), uzumculuk (vine-growing), t?bligatc?l?q (propaganda); dolca (a can), qazanca(a pan) otluq(grassland), mes?lik (woodland) qald?r?c? (lifting), endirici (drawoff) ; sevinc (joy), gulunc (smile); yavasca (slowly, carefully), indic? (just) and syntactical ones (otbic?n (hay-maker), vaxtamuzd (time work), boyunbag? (necklace), gundogan (east), sar?koyn?k (oriole), ?lidolu (with the hands full (of), adl?-sanl? (celebrated, famous), q?rxayaq (centipede), besac?lan (rifle having five charges), etc).

    To date Azerbaijan uses the Azerbaijani alphabet, established on the basis of Latin letters.

    Depending on the areas of usage of literary Azerbaijani language, it combines four main styles: official style, publicistic style, belles-letters and the style of scientific prose. To date all the styles are on highly developed.

    Great changes occurring in political, scientific, cultural life of the country caused the rapid increase of terms in the vocabulary of Azerbaijani language. This process is observed in all styles, especially in official and scientific styles and in some way in the publicistic style.

    The dialects of the Azerbaijani language consist of four groups: 1) eastern group (Baku, Quba, Shamakhi, Lenkeran. Mugham dialects; 2) western group (Ganja, Qazakh, Karabakh and Ayrym dialects); 3) northern group (Sheki, Zagatala-Qakh dialects); 4) southern group (Nakhichevan, Ordubad dialects).