Софт-Архив

Hamster

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Hamster Free ZIP Archiver - скачать бесплатно русскую версию Hamster Free ZIP Archiver для Windows

Hamster Free ZIP Archiver Основная информация о программе

Hamster Free ZIP Archiver - бесплатный архиватор, работающий с архивами ZIP и 7Z и использующий максимальные возможности многоядерных процессоров. Программа имеет приятный интерфейс и поддержку русского языка.  Степень сжатия файлов регулируется тремя опциями: Минимум; Оптимально; Максимум. В программе нет богатых настроек, однако разработчики утверждают, что оптимальные настройки уже были подобраны специалистами компании. Переключение между создаваемыми форматами - ZIP и 7Z - производится двумя кнопками в главном окне Hamster Free ZIP Archiver.

При создании архива доступно всего три опции - это степень сжатия, деление архива на более мелкие куски и установка пароля. Обещанные разработчиками предустановленные настройки видны в пункте деление, где вы можете разделить архив на куски оптимизированные для разных веб-ресурсов: для электронной почты - 5 Мб, для Rapidshare - 100 Мб, а для CD - 700 Мб.   Интерфейс Hamster Free ZIP Archiver создан таким образом, чтобы даже новичок смог сразу же начать пользоваться программой. Интеграция в контекстное меню проводника дает быстрый доступ к основным операциям, таким как распаковка архивов, и запаковка без пароля.

Новые отзывы о Hamster Free ZIP Archiver

Достоинства

1. Встраивается в контекстное меню (как и все нормальные архиваторы), и удобно распаковывать и создавать архивы.

2. Интерфейс программы одновременно красивый и практичный. Здесь все делается проще, чем в других архиваторах. Быстро можно выбрать одну из степеней сжатия, настроить деление архива (если он большой) и установить пароль.

3. Операции сопровождаются красивыми анимациями, при открытии какого-либо окна настроек фоновое окно покрывается эффектом размытия. Аж не верится, что ты работаешь с архиватором, да еще и бесплатным.

4. Созданный архив можно сохранять на жестком диске или облаке. В настройках программы нужно указать облачный сервис, который вы используете. Это редкая [Читать далее. ]

Другие статьи, обзоры программ, новости

Hamster Free ZIP Archiver - скачать бесплатно Hamster Free ZIP Archiver Update 1

Hamster Free ZIP Archiver 3.0.0.86 Update 1

Hamster Free ZIP Archiver - простой и удобный архиватор, полностью использующий возможности многоядерных процессоров при создании архивов. Позволяет создавать ZIP и 7Z архивы, а также распаковывать 12 типов архивов: RAR, ZIP, CAB, ARJ, LZH, ACE, 7-ZIP, TAR, GZip, UUE и т.д.

Отзывы о Hamster Free ZIP Archiver 3.0.0.86 Update 1

Влад про Hamster Free ZIP Archiver 3.0.0.86 Update 1 [30-12-2015]

Самый ужасный архиватор! Когда нужно делать большие операции, то он вылетает! WinRAR лучше всех!

Сергей про Hamster Free ZIP Archiver 3.0.0.86 Update 1 [24-10-2015]

Такое чувство что тут калеки сидят, у того "рекламный да ещё немного вирусный архиватор" у того еще руки откуда то не от туда растут раз чуть винду не убил. Надо обновлять программу когда она просит, У меня тоже Хамстер тупил мне было лень его обновить он часто "не отвечал", потом обновил и все стало ок.

Hamster

Hamsters are rodents belonging to the subfamily Cricetinae. The subfamily contains about 25 species. classified in six or seven genera. [ 1 ]

Hamsters are crepuscular animals which burrow underground in the daylight to avoid being caught by predators. Their diet includes a variety of foods, including dried food, berries, nuts, fresh fruits and vegetables. In the wild they feed primarily on seeds, fruits and greens, and will occasionally eat burrowing insects. [ 2 ] They have an elongated pouch on each side of their heads that extend to their shoulders, which they stuff full of food to be stored, brought back to the colony or to be eaten later.

Although the Golden Hamster (Mesocricetus auratus ) was first described scientifically in 1839, it was not until 1930 that researchers were able to successfully breed and domesticate hamsters. [ 3 ] Pet Golden Hamsters are descended from hamsters first found and captured in Syria by zoologist Israel Aharoni. [ 4 ]

Hamster behavior can vary depending on their environment, genetics, and interaction with people. Because they are easy to breed in captivity. hamsters are often used as lab animals in more economically developed countries. Hamsters have also become established as popular small house pets. [ 3 ] Hamsters are sometimes accepted even in areas where other rodents are disliked, and their stereotypically solitary nature can reduce the risk of excessive litters developing in households.

Etymology of name Characteristics

Two species of hamsters belonging to the genus Phodopus (Phodopus campbelli. Campbell's Dwarf Hamster, and Phodopus sungorus. the Djungarian Hamster) and also two of the species of the genus Cricetulus . (Cricetulus barabensis. the Chinese Striped Hamster, and Cricetulus griseus. the Chinese Dwarf Hamster) have a dark stripe down the head to tail. The species of genus Phodopus are the smallest, with bodies 5.5 to 10.5 centimetres (2.2 to 4.1 in) long; the largest is the European Hamster (Cricetus cricetus ), measuring up to 34 centimetres (13.4 in) long, not including a short tail of up to 6 centimetres (2.4 in). The Angora hamster, also known as the long-haired or Teddy Bear hamster, which is a type of the Golden Hamster is the second-largest hamster breed, measuring up to 18 centimetres (7.1 in) long. [ 3 ]

Hamsters have poor eyesight; they are nearsighted and colorblind. "To compensate for their poor sight when in unfamiliar territory, hamsters have scent glands on their flanks (and abdomens in Chinese and dwarf hamsters). A hamster rubs these areas of his body against various objects, and leaves a trail of smells the hamster can follow to return to his home den." Hamsters can use their sense of smell to detect gender, locate food, and detect pheremones. They are also particularly sensitive to high-pitched noises and can hear and communicate in the ultrasonic range. [ 4 ]

The tail is sometimes difficult to see; usually it is not very long (about 1/6 the length of their body) with exception of the Chinese dwarf hamster whose tail is the same length as the body. On a long haired hamster it is barely visible. Hamsters are very flexible, and their bones are somewhat fragile. They are extremely susceptible to rapid temperature changes and drafts, as well as extreme heat or cold.

Hamsters are omnivorous. They eat most things, and although they should regularly be given a diet of normal hamster food, it is enjoyable for both the owner and the hamster to experiment with other things, such as vegetables, fruits (though these should be removed once they go rotten or bad), seeds, and nuts. Hamsters are hindgut fermenters and must eat their own feces in order to digest their food a second time. This practice is called coprophagy and is necessary for the hamster to obtain the proper nutrients from its food. [ 1 ]

One characteristic of rodents that is highly visible in hamsters is their sharp incisors. They have two pairs in the front of their mouths and these incisors never stop growing and thus must be regularly worn down. Hamsters carry food in their spacious cheek pouches to their underground storage chambers. When full, their cheeks can make their heads double (or even triple) in size. [ 1 ] Hamsters in the Middle East have been known to hunt in packs to find insects for food. [ 7 ]

Hamster

hamstergem / hamster

Efficient, immutable, and thread-safe collection classes for Ruby.

Hamster started out as an implementation of Hash Array Mapped Tries for Ruby. It has since expanded to implementations of other Persistent Data Structures like Set. List. Stack. Queue. and Vector .

Hamster collections are immutable. Whenever you modify a Hamster collection, the original is preserved and a modified copy is returned. This makes them inherently thread-safe and sharable. For an interesting perspective on why immutability itself is inherently a good thing, you might like to take a look at Matthias Felleisen"s Function Objects presentation .

Hamster collection classes remain space efficient by making use of some very well understood and very simple techniques that enable sharing between copies.

Hamster collections are almost always closed under a given operation. That is, whereas Ruby"s collection methods always return arrays, Hamster collections will return an instance of the same class wherever possible.

And lastly, Hamster lists are lazy -- where Ruby"s language constructs permit -- making it possible to, among other things, process "infinitely large" lists. (Note: Ruby 1.9 supports a form of laziness using Enumerator. However, they"re implemented using Fibers which unfortunately can"t be shared across threads.)

Hamster started out as a spike to prove a point and has since morphed into something I actually use. My primary concern has been to round out the functionality with good test coverage and clean, readable code.

Performance is pretty good -- especially with lazy lists -- but there are some things which may blow the stack due to a lack of Tail-Call-Optimisation in Ruby.

Documentation is sparse but I've tried as best I can to write specs that read as documentation. I've also tried to alias methods as their Enumerable equivalents where possible to ease code migration.

Most Hamster classes support an API that resembles their standard library counterpart with the caveat that any modification returns a new instance.

Once installed, all that remains is to make the collection classes available in your code:

Hamster - Hamsters Wiki

Hamsters are rodents belonging to the subfamily Cricetinae. The subfamily contains about 18 species, classified in six or seven genus|genera.

The name hamster is derived from the German word Hamster. itself from earlier Old High German|OHG hamustro. from Old Russian|ORuss chomestoru. which is either a blend of the root of Russ khomiak "hamster" and a Baltic word (cf. Lithuanian language|Lith staras "hamster") [1] or of Iranian origin (cf. Av hamaestar "oppressor") [2].

Behavior can vary depending on their environment, genetics, and interaction with people. Because they are easy to breed in captivity, hamsters are often used as lab animals in more economically developed countries. Hamsters have also become established as popular small pets.

Hamsters are crepuscular. In the wild, they burrow underground in the daylight to avoid being caught by predators. Contrary to popular belief they are a nocturnal animal. Their diet contains a variety of foods, including dried food, berries, nuts, fresh fruits and vegetables. In the wild they will eat any wheat, nuts and small bits of fruit and vegetables that they might find lying around on the ground, and will occasionally eat small insects such as small crickets or mealworms. They have elongated fur-lined pouches on both sides of their heads which extend to their shoulders, which they stuff full of food to be brought back to the colony or to be eaten later.

Characteristics Edit

Hamsters are stout-bodied, with tails much shorter than body length and have small furry ears, short stocky legs, and wide feet. Their thick, silky fur, which can be long or short, can be black, grey, white, brown, buff, yellow, "sapphire" or red depending on the species, or a mix of any of those colors.

Two of the dwarf hamsters belonging to the genus Phodopus (Phodopus campbelli), Campbell's Dwarf Hamster, and Phodopus sungorus. the Winter White Russian Dwarf Hamster) and also two of the species of the genus Cricetulus. (Cricetulus barabensis. the Chinese Striped Hamster, and Cricetulus griseus. the Chinese Dwarf Hamster) have a dark stripe down the middle of the back. The species of genus Phodopus are the smallest, with bodies 5 to 10 cm (about 2 to 4 inches) long; the largest is the common hamster (Cricetus cricetus ), measuring up to 34 cm (about 13 inches) long, not including a short tail of up to 4 cm (1-1/2 inches). The Angora hamster. also known as the long-haired or Teddy Bear hamster, which is a type of the Syrian Hamster is the second largest hamster breed, measuring up to 15 cm (about 6 inches) long.

The tail is often difficult to see; usually it is not very long, and on a long haired hamster it is barely visible. Hamsters are very flexible, and their bones are somewhat fragile.

Habitat Edit

Hamsters' northern range extends from central Europe through Siberia. Mongolia. and northern China to Korea. The southern portion of their range stretches from Syria to India. Throughout dry, open country they inhabit desert borders, vegetated sand dunes, shrubby and rocky foothills and plateaux, river valleys, and mountain steppes; some live among cultivated crops. Geographic distribution varies greatly between species. The common hamster, for example, is found from central Europe to western Siberia and northwestern China, but the golden hamster has been found only near a small town in northwestern Syria. [3]

Hamsters are omnivorous. Their diet consists mostly of grains (such as whole grain oats and corn) but also includes fresh fruit, roots such as carrots, green parts of plants. Hamsters carry food in their spacious cheek pouches to a cache in the burrow. When full, their cheeks can make their heads double in size. Hamsters in the Middle East have been known to hunt in packs to find insects for food. [3]

Pet stores sell a variety of treats that are suitable for hamsters.

Behavior Edit

Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus ) are generally solitary and will fight to the death if put together, whereas some of dwarf hamster species can get along with others of the same species. Hamsters are primarily considered crepuscular and at one point were considered nocturnal as they are sometimes active all night. Some species have been observed to be more nocturnal than others. All hamsters are excellent diggers, constructing burrows with one or more entrances and with galleries that are connected to chambers for nesting, food storage, and other activities. They will also appropriate tunnels made by other mammals; the Winter White Russian Dwarf Hamster (Phodopus sungorus ), for instance, uses paths and burrows of the pika. None hibernate during winter, but some (mostly Syrian hamsters) experience periods of torporlastingfrom a few days to several weeks. This probably means that conditions are too cold for them. Hamsters are known to stockpile large amounts of food, because of natural instinct from the wild. Because of this behavior it is possible to leave a hamster alone for a few days. Once a Syrian hamster is tamed, they remain so for a long time. However, dwarf hamsters must be continuously played with otherwise if left alone for a maximum of two to three weeks, it can become untame again. [3]

Reproduction Edit

Hamsters become fertile at different ages dependent on their species, but this can be from one month to three months of age. Male hamsters remain fertile for the rest of their lives, though females do not. Females are in heat approximately every four days.

Breeding season is from April to October, with two to five litters of 1 to 13 young being born after a gestation period of 16 to 23 days. [3] Gestation lasts 16 to 18 days for Syrian hamsters. 18 to 21 days for the Russian hamsters, 21 to 23 days for Chinese hamsters and 23 to 30 for Roborovski Hamsters. The average litter for Syrians is about 7, but can be as great as 24, which is the maximum number of pups that can be contained in the uterus. Campbell's Dwarf Hamsters tend to have 4 to 8 in a litter but can have up to 14. Winter White Russian Dwarf Hamsters tend to have slightly smaller litters, as do Chinese and Roborovski hamsters.

Siberian hamsters form close, monogamous bonds with their mates. If separated, they may become very depressed. This happens especially in males. Males will become inactive, eat more, and even show some behavioral changes similar to some types of depression in humans. This can even cause obesity in the hamster.

Chinese hamster females are known for being aggressive toward the male if kept together for too long. In some cases, male Chinese hamsters have died after being attacked by the female. If breeding Chinese hamsters, it is recommended to separate the pair after mating or the hamsters will attack each other.

Hamsters are born hairless and blind in a nest which the mother will have prepared in advance. She uses shredded material such as leaves in the wild but prefers cotton or toilet paper in captivity. After one week they begin to explore outside the nest. They are completely weaned after three weeks, or four for Roborovski Hamsters. Most breeders will sell the hamsters to shops when the hamsters are anywhere from two to eight weeks old.

Classification Edit

Taxonomists generally disagree about the most appropriate placement of the subfamily Cricetinae within the superfamily Muroidea. Some place it in a family Cricetidae that also includes voles. lemmings. and New World rats and mice ; others group all these into a large family called Muridae. Their evolutionary history is recorded by 15 extinct fossil genera and extends back 11.2 million to 16.4 million years to the Middle Miocene Epoch in Europe and North Africa; in Asia it extends 6 million to 11 million years. Four of the seven living genera include extinct species. One extinct hamster of Cricetus . for example, lived in North Africa during the Middle Miocene, but the only extant member of that genus is the common hamster of Eurasia.

  • Subfamily Cricetinae
    • Genus Allocricetulus
      • Species A. curtatus - Mongolian Hamster
      • Species A. eversmanni - Kazakh Hamster, also called Eversmann's Hamster
    • Genus Cansumys
      • Species C. canus - Gansu Hamster
    • Genus Cricetulus
      • Species C. alticola - Ladak Hamster
      • Species C. barabensis . including "C. pseudogriseus " and "C. obscurus " - Chinese Striped Hamster, also called Chinese Hamster; Striped Dwarf Hamster
      • Species C. griseus - Chinese (Dwarf) Hamster, also called Rat Hamster
      • Species C. kamensis - Tibetan Hamster
      • Species C. longicaudatus - Long-tailed Hamster
      • Species C. migratorius - Armenian Hamster, also called Migratory Grey Hamster; Grey Hamster; Grey Dwarf Hamster; Migratory Hamster
      • Species C. sokolovi - Sokolov's Hamster
    • Genus Cricetus
      • Species C. cricetus - European Hamster, also called Common Hamster or Black-Bellied Field Hamster
    • Genus Mesocricetus - Golden Hamsters
      • Species M. auratus - Syrian Hamster, also called the Golden Hamster or "Teddy Bear" hamster
      • Species M. brandti - Turkish hamster, also called Brandt 's Hamster; Azerbaijani Hamster
      • Species M. newtoni - Romanian Hamster
      • Species M. raddei - Ciscaucasian Hamster
    • Genus Phodopus - Dwarf Hamsters
      • Species P. campbelli - Campbell's Russian Dwarf Hamster
      • Species P. roborovskii - Roborovski Hamster, the smallest and fastest of the hamster species
      • Species P. sungorus - Winter White Russian Dwarf Hamster
    • Genus Tscherskia
      • Species T. triton - Greater Long-tailed Hamster, also called Korean Hamster
Hamster as pets Edit

The best-known species of hamster is the Syrian or Golden Hamster (Mesocricetus auratus ), which is the type of hamster most commonly kept as a pet. It is also sometimes called a "fancy" hamster. Pet stores also have taken to calling them "honey bears," "panda bears," "black bears," "European black bears," "polar bears," "teddy bears," and "Dalmatian", depending on their coloration. There are also several variations, including long-haired varieties that grow hair several centimeters long and often require special care.

Other hamsters that are kept as pets are the four species of "dwarf hamster ". Campbell's Dwarf Hamster (Phodopus campbelli ) is the most common of the four — they are also sometimes called "Russian Dwarfs"; however, many hamsters are from Russia, and so this ambiguous name does not distinguish them from other species appropriately. The coat of the Winter White Russian Dwarf Hamster (Phodopus sungorus ) might turn white during winter (when the hours of daylight decrease). The Roborovski Hamster (Phodopus roborovskii ) is extremely small and fast. The Chinese Hamster (Cricetulus griseus ), although not technically a true "dwarf hamster", is the only hamster with a prehensile tail (about 4cm long) - most hamsters have very short, non-prehensile tails.

Many breeders also show their hamsters and so breed towards producing a good healthy show hamster with a view to keeping one or two themselves so quality and temperament are of vital importance when planning the breeding. Although breeders of show hamsters specialise in breeding show hamsters, there are also owners who have bred their pet hamsters. These may be the result of a planned or unplanned pregnancy but the hamsters have usually been cared for well and handled regularly, so make very suitable pets. Buying a hamster directly from a breeder means that there is the opportunity to see the parents and know the dates of birth.

In Australia it is illegal to keep hamsters as pets as 'escapees' could breed in the wild and become 'feral' pest animals.

Sex and longevity Edit

File:Hamster with babies.jpg her two pups, who are less than one week old.

Syrian hamsters typically live no more than two to three years in captivity, less than that in the wild. Russian Hamsters (Campbell's and Winter White) live approximately 1.5 to 2 years in captivity, and Chinese Hamsters 2.5 to 3 years. The smaller Roborovski Hamster often lives to 3 to 3.5 years in captivity. Both Syrian and Russian hamsters mature quickly and can begin reproducing at a young age (4–5 weeks), whereas Chinese hamsters will usually begin reproducing at 2–3 months of age, and Roborovskis at 3–4 months of age.

A male "Teddy Bear" Hamster

Left to their own devices, hamsters will produce several litters a year with several pups in each litter. When seen from above, a sexually mature female hamster has a trim tail line; a male's tail line bulges on both sides. This might not be very visible in all species. Male hamsters typically have very large testes in relation to their body size. Before sexual maturity occurs at about 4–6 weeks, it is more difficult to determine a young hamster's sex. When examined, female hamsters have two holes close together, whereas males have anal and genital openings further apart than the female's. (The penis is usually withdrawn into the coat and thus appears as a hole or pink pimple.)

Health conditions Edit Relationships among hamster species Edit

Neumann et al. (2006) conducted a molecular phylogenetic analysis of 12 of the above 17 species of hamster using DNA sequence from three genes. 12S rRNA. cytochrome b. and von Willebrand factor. They uncovered the following relationships:

Phodopus group

The genus Phodopus was found to represent the earliest split among hamsters. Their analysis included both species. The results of another study (Lebedev et al.. 2003) may suggest that Cricetulus kamensis (and presumably the related C. alticola ) might belong to either this Phodopus group or hold a similar basal position.

Mesocricetus group

The genus Mesocricetus also form a clade. Their analysis included all four species, with M. auratus and M. raddei forming one subclade and M. brandti and M. newtoni another.

Remaining genera

The remaining genera of hamsters formed a third major clade. Two of the three sampled species within Cricetulus represent the earliest split. This clade contains Cricetulus barabensis (and presumably the related C. sokolovi ) and Cricetulus longicaudatus.

Miscellaneous

The remaining clade contains members of Allocricetulus. Tscherskia. Cricetus. and Cricetulus migratorius. Allocricetulus and Cricetus were sister taxa. Cricetulus migratorius was their next closest relative, and Tscherskia was basal.

Similar animals Edit

Note that there are some rodents which are sometimes called "hamsters" that are not currently classified in the hamster subfamily Cricetinae. These include the Maned Hamster or Crested Hamster, which is really the Maned Rat (Lophiomys imhausi ), although not nearly as marketable under that name. Others are the mouse-like hamsters (Calomyscus spp.), and the white-tailed rat (Mystromys albicaudatus ).

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Keeping Hamsters as Pets

Keeping Hamsters as Pets Information and Pictures

Micky the friendly little hamster

Warm-blooded mammal in the rodent family. Nocturnal—up at night, sleeps during the day. There are many types of hamsters, but only a few types are kept as pets. The hamster is the most popular of the smaller rodents kept as a pet in many countries today. Unlike the mouse, a hamster is virtually tailless. The most popular variety of hamster kept as pets and used in laboratories, are the golden (Syrian) hamsters. They come in cinnamon, cream and white. Goldens also come in the longhaired variety called "teddy bear" hamsters.

Hamsters make good beginner pets, as they are fairly easy to care for. They often have docile temperaments and have relatively clean habits. Hamsters are friendly and when handled often, they become quite tame. They are delightful to watch as they go about their daily housekeeping, food storing and exercise on their wheel. Some will show acknowledgement of their owners, eagerly looking for treats when approached. A hamster that has not been handled enough while young may not be as friendly and may not wish to be held and may even bite. Whereas a hamster that has been handled frequently from a very young age usually remains docile and rarely bites. Those with docile temperaments and a history of not biting can simply be picked up by using one or both hands, and then held in both hands or in one hand holding it against the body. Be sure to pick a hamster with a good temperament. If you suddenly grab or startle the hamster, it may bite, and the bite may draw blood. Hamsters should be gently handled, scooping them up and cradling them in the palms of your hands. The more a hamster is gently handled the tamer it will become. Many hamsters develop untrustworthy personalities and begin to bite because they have been handled roughly or suddenly disturbed or awakened. Caution should be used when approaching a hamster with an unknown personality. You can wear gloves or gently wrap them in a small towel to pick them up. You can also encourage them into a Tupperware container to remove them from their cage. Hamsters that are known to bite and those with unknown personalities can also be picked up by the skin on the back of their neck. Hamsters have very loose skin, so be sure to get a lot of skin using your thumb, middle and index fingers, because a hamster can turn all the way around and bite the person’s hand. Black Bear and golden hamsters are the easiest to tame. Hamster temperaments vary from breed to breed and depending on where you buy your hamster. In a lot of cases the hamsters in the pet stores are mass produced without any thought to temperament or health. For this reason you may want to consider looking into a hamster breeder or digging deep as to find out the origins of the pet store hamster. The hamster is nocturnal, meaning they are up at night and sleep during the day so keep in mind they may make noise at night with their gnawing and rustling around their cage. Hamsters have large incisor teeth that continually grow. They need to gnaw on things to wear down the teeth to prevent them from overgrowing. They have very poor eyesight but a keen sense of smell and excellent hearing. The Syrian (or golden) hamster, cannot be kept with other hamsters after 8–10 weeks of age. They may viciously fight, resulting in either serious injury or death, especially two adult female hamsters. Breeding females are larger than males and tend to be aggressive toward them. However the Russian dwarf hamster can sometimes be kept with other hamsters. Hamsters are not as demanding of attention as a rabbit, guinea pig or rat. If the hamster is a child's pet, the child should be taught how to properly handle and care for the hamster. Hamsters should not be allowed to roam free around your house as there are lots of tiny places they can get into and you may have a hard time getting the little guy back again. They also like to chew, so if your hamster is lost for a period of time, it may chew your carpet or furniture. They can also get stepped on and if you have a cat or a dog, a loose hamster can be in great danger. Hamsters cannot see very well and they are not as sure-footed and as some other animals. They can very easily fall off of furniture or tables and can really get hurt. Hamster balls are available in pet stores and should only be used with adult supervision.

An adult hamster weighs roughly 90 - 150 gm. They are small, about 3-5 inches (mouse like) and can fit in the palm of your hand.

There is a wide variety of cages and housing used for hamsters. Common caging used are 10-gallon tanks, Habitrails, stainless steel and wire cages (some having multiple levels, with a plastic cat litter pan bottom for easy cleaning). Habitrails are fun for the hamsters. You can attach plastic see-through tubes and tunnels, making a great home for the hamster to roam. However keep in mind the more attachments you use the more you will have to clean. Cages should at least be 20 square inches of floor area per hamster, and a cage height of at least 6 inches. Since hamsters like to sleep during the day and are up all night you may want to keep the hamster cage in a living room or den rather than a bedroom so the nighttime noise is not bothersome. A wood or plastic house should be provided for the hamster to burrow in. The cage should have solid floors and relatively deep bedding. Plenty of nesting material should always be provided. Toilet paper and paper towel tubes are great things to put into the cage for them to chew on and make their nest. Small cardboard boxes are also great. Common beddings used are toilet paper, shredded paper, processed corn cob, CareFRESH™, Sani-chips®, Gentle Touch™ and wood chips. Cotton or shredded tissue paper (Kleenex) is suitable nesting material. Some use cedar or pine chips, however it is said that neither of these should be used as they contain oils called phenols that can slowly cause liver and kidney failure. Some also say you should avoid any cotton or fiber type beddings sold as nesting material. The fibers do not break down in the hamster’s system and can get caught in their pouches or ingest them while eating. Be sure your hamster’s cage is escape-free. Hamsters are great escape artists! Once free, you may have a very hard time getting them back. They will chew on your wires, furniture, etc. Hamsters rarely return to their cages on their own.

Hamsters should have their cage cleaned weekly. Un-cleaned cages can get quite smelly. Bedding should be kept clean.

Hamsters do not require grooming; they take care of their own grooming needs.

Hardy, requiring few visits to the vet. "Teddy bear" hamsters and other genetic varieties tend to be much more susceptible to disease and sensitive to antibiotics and other drugs than the shorthaired golden hamster. When hamsters are under stress they can get diarrhea, which is called "wet bottom." Wet bottom is diarrhea, which looks almost like pee; shortly after they contract this they usually die.

Hamsters are solitary animals and only come together for mating. Golden hamsters have to be separated after mating, otherwise the female may kill the male. The gestation period of the common hamster is 19-20 days and is 15 days for the golden. They will have 4-12 babies at a time. Hamster babies are called hamster pups. A mother hamster is very maternal, and, if danger threatens, she will carry her babies away, either by putting them into her cheek pouches or laying them across the toothless area of her jaws. Hamster pups should not be touched for the first two weeks as the scent it leaves on the babies can confuse the mother, causing her to abandon or even eat them as she mistakes them for someone else’s babies. The babies are so tiny that you can also accidently hurt them. By the time they are two weeks old their eyes are open and they have a thick coat of fur. Mother hamsters wean their babies at about 3-4 weeks of age and the babies should be separated from the mother shortly after that. A female hamster is capable of having 2-3 litters a year.

Hamsters originated in the Middle East and southeastern Europe. The word 'rodent' is derived from the Latin word 'rodere' which means 'to gnaw' and the word 'hamster' comes from the German word 'hamstern' which means 'to hoard' or 'to store', referring to the hamster’s tendency to collect food in its pouches.

Hamster: Wikis (The Full Wiki)

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Hamsters are crepuscular. In the wild, they burrow underground in the daylight to avoid being caught by predators. Their diet contains a variety of foods, including dried food, berries, nuts, fresh fruits and vegetables. In the wild they will eat any wheat, nuts and small bits of fruit and vegetables that they might find lying around on the ground, and will occasionally eat small insects such as small fruit flies, crickets, and meal worms. They have elongated fur-lined pouches on both sides of their heads that extend to their shoulders, which they stuff full of food to be stored, brought back to the colony or to be eaten later.

Although the Golden Hamster (Mesocricetus auratus ) was first described scientifically in 1839, it was not until 1930 that researchers were able to successfully breed and domesticate hamsters. [ 2 ] Pet Syrian hamsters are descended from hamsters first found and captured in Syria by zoologist Israel Aharoni. [ 3 ]

Hamster behaviour can vary depending on their environment, genetics, and interaction with people. Because they are easy to breed in captivity. hamsters are often used as lab animals in more economically developed countries. Hamsters have also become established as popular small house pets. [ 2 ]

Animal Care

Animal Care/Hamster Hamsters as pets Edit

The hamster kept as pet least often is the Golden Hamster. also you should never feed hamster your finger called Syrian Hamster. So-called Teddybear or Black bear hamsters are breeds of blue hamsters. But also four species of smaller hamsters are popular pets, often called dwarf hamsters. These are Roborovski hamster. (Phodopus roborovskii ) often called Roborovski, the chinese striped hamster (Cricetulus griseus ) and the two subspecies of Phodopus sungorus . the winter white Russian dwarf hamster (Phodopus sungorus sungorus ) and Campbell's dwarf hamster (Phodopus sungorus campellii ). The care of the dwarf hamsters is similar to that of the golden hamster, but there are differences in feeding and housing needs and temperament. Winter whites and Campell's are fairly popular, in the US the campells more so than the whinter whites, while it's other way round in Europe. Roborovski and Chinese striped Hamsters are somewhat more difficult to breed and keep, they are usually only available from breeders, and therefore limited to serious rodentia fans. Roborovski are especially not suitable for children.

Hamsters are nocturnal by nature, making them less than ideal as pets for people who are normally awake during the day. However, many people prefer them to rats. given rats' unsavory reputation (undeserved as pets). Unlike rats, they are not particularly good at learning tricks but can be entertaining to watch. They are also much smaller than guinea pigs. although equally as furry and appealing, so are more appropriate for homes with limited space.

Housing Edit

Hamsters can be kept both in cages and in terrariums, both of which are available in pet stores. Cages are easier to carry, their bars can be used for climbing, and they usually include a convenient front door. On the other hand, glass boxes keep hamsters from throwing litter out of their cages, provide a better view into the hamster's home, and create a quieter and more sheltered interior. In general, terrariums are more appropriate for dwarf hamsters, which are more sensitive to a disquieting environment and which would otherwise need very narrow-grid bars to keep them from slipping through. Middle-sized hamsters, such as the Golden Hamster, especially enjoy climbing the cage walls (the cage should have horizontal and vertical bars) and are more open to the outside world, which is why cages might be the better choice for this kind of hamsters.

Despite the hamster's small size, appropriate housings should always have a floor space of at least 40 cm by 60 cm (16 by 24 inches) and be at least 40 cm (24 inches) in height. Glass boxes must not be higher than their width to allow for a sufficient air circulation. Although smaller in size, dwarf hamsters should have bigger housings than their larger relatives, at least 80 cm by 40 cm (2 feet by 4 feet). The reason for this is that the dwarfs are very active, running and digging a lot, but they often cannot be taken outside their houses for long, because they are not comfortable there and, due to their smaller size, are more endangered when leaving their domicile. Usually hamsters with a bigger and more interesting home will live longer and provide more visual entertainment.

In addition to buying the common housings sold in stores, you can also build customized dwellings. In this case, use only materials that are not dangerous to the animals. Plywood and wood from conifers is not suitable, because hamsters gnaw at their houses and both glue and resin are poisonous for them. Using standard aquarium siciloin to join pieces of solid wood, such as birch or beech wood, creates a safe environment for the hamster, although you must check frequently to ensure that the hamster is not gnawing through the wood. You can also equip a purchased cage with several intermediate levels, connected using stairs. Using wire grid for these platforms instead of solid wood causes serious injuries and is therefore not recommended.

The narrow and smooth plastic toy housings that can be found in some stores are not appropriate as the sole habitat for hamsters. The tight tubes are often densely closed, preventing sufficient air circulation, and the plastic surfaces, while easily cleanable, cannot absorb the hamster's urine like natural materials. The result is a damp and uncomfortable climate that is a perfect habitat for germs and fungi. In addition, synthetic materials are unhealthy when used for gnawing, making plastic tubes, "space stations", and houses an improper and unnatural (though often expensive) permanent home for hamsters. Reserve these habitats for supervised play and activity.

The perfect place for the hamster's home is a well-lit room of constant, moderate temperature (18 to 26°C, 64 to 80°F), in a place without strong solar irradiation that could cause dangerous heating. Especially when wire cages are used, it is also important to avoid air draft. Though they cannot see very far, hamsters become more relaxed and curious when positioned somewhat above the ground (at least 65 cm (2 feet)), from where they can perceive their surroundings.

Cover the inside of the hamster's residence, including all intermediate levels, with a sufficiently thick layer of wooden litter for rodents, available in pet stores. Although alternative materials may work as well, most of these bear additional threats, NEVER use pine or cedar as it causes respitory infections. Cat litter is dangerous, because gnawing and eating the chunks is deadly.

Hamsters are nest builders and a steady supply of fresh strips of tissue or newspaper (with soy-based ink only) allows them to build a secure and comfortable spot in a corner of their enclosure or in their hiding house. Hay, from shops or even fresh from the garden, is also a valuable building material for cosy hamster nests, which, as an additional bonus, is also perfectly edible.

A sand bath can provide a hamster with entertainment and helps them groom. In the desert (their natural habitat), hamsters will roll around in the sand, which cleans their coat and prevents it from getting too oily. Dwarf hamsters in particularly enjoy this activity. Be sure to use a dish that will not tip over. Heavy ceramic and metal dishes are preferred. You can fill the dish with fine sand (pumice or chinchilla sand is best), but DO NOT use any sort of 'dust' bath AT ALL. This can cause respiratory and eye problems.

Regular cleaning of a hamster's home is crucial for the hamster's health. The home must be cleaned at least once a week by replacing the soiled bedding where necessary. Hamsters are fairly neat in their bathroom habits; if their enclosure is regularly cleaned, they choose one small location in which to urinate and defecate, making the cleaning simple. They may have many (usually hidden) places used as toilets.

Another important component of a hamster's home is a hiding place where the animal can rest during the day. Not all commercially available houses are adequate. The houses should be of sufficient size and be closed on at least two sides. The same building materials are appropriate for these as for the larger cages, although even a small cardboard box will work (and which will have to be regularly replaced and NO INK. ). Some houses add features such as a removable roof that helps to take away collected food (especially perishable items).

Hamsters are solitary animals and prefer to be alone most of the time. While sometimes two or more animals can live peacefully within one home, there can be bloody fights. In their natural habitat, there is substantially more empty space so that each hamster can have its own large territory. If more than one hamster is to live in a cage, then the cage must be larger (at least 40cm x 40cm per hamster) and there must be separate hiding houses for each animal. In any case, even after a long period of peaceful coexistence or even mating, there can be violent biting. In this situation, the hamsters should be separated immediately. Note also that, if a male and female hamster live together without fighting, then they will usually reproduce rapidly, thereby causing more space problems.

Gnawing Edit

Despite their cuddly appearance, hamsters have long, thin, sharp teeth that can pierce a finger that is mistaken for a carrot or for a predator. When they are accustomed to being handled and are not startled, however, they are not inclined to bite and can be placed in the custody of responsible school-age children. Like many rodents, their teeth grow continuously and they must have appropriate things to chew on to relieve their instinctive gnawing and to help keep the teeth at a healthy length. They will gnaw on whatever is available, so they must be kept in enclosures that they cannot chew through. When the hamster is kept in or near a bedroom, their nocturnal nature combined with their gnawing habit can become distracting.

Exercise and entertainment Edit

Like all pets, hamsters need exercise and entertainment to maintain their physical and mental health. An exercise wheel allows hamsters to run full speed to their hearts' content, but is not as mentally stimulating as more elaborate enclosures including additional toys such as plastic or wooden tubes that somewhat mimic the burrows that they might have in the wild and allow their owners to enjoy their activities. Most commercial exercise wheels marketed for hamsters have rungs which are not suitable for hamsters due to the fact that a hamster could get injured in one.

Clear plastic hamster balls or cars are available, into which the hamster is placed and then, by its own action, explores an entire house or yard. Use these toys only under supervision and use common sense. Unsupervised hamsters in these toys can become trapped against furniture and panic or they can roll down stairs, injuring themselves. Do not leave them in these toys for extended periods, especially on warm days, and make sure to remove them frequently and allow them access to water or fresh fruits or vegetables. Toys should always invite the hamster to explore and use them at its own will, without forcing or violence.

If they are handled frequently, hamsters enjoy being out of their enclosures and having the opportunity to explore. However, they must be kept away from holes in the wall or in large pieces of furniture, because they will seek out the dark and burrow-like confines of those areas and it can be difficult or impossible to convince them to come out again.

Pet stores can provide basic food for hamsters that provides their non-nutritional needs, but they also like fresh vegetables and fruits. dog food, and even killed insects. which make up an important part of their natural diet. However, not any nutrition is suitable for hamsters and some food, such as sweets made for humans or poisonous plants like the leaves of the tomato. may be most dangerous for the hamster's health. Like with most other animals (and humans), it is not true that hamsters can decide which food is good for them and they will usually eat anything that is offered.

Hamsters should also always have fresh water available. Appropriate drinking devices can be found in stores. Being small animals that are adapted to the life in arid environments, hamsters can also ingest all necessary liquid via sufficient amounts of watery vegetables, such as cucumber, without any negative effects. However, providing water is usually more convenient and can be an easy way to add medication or vitamins to the hamsters diet. Both water and vegetables must be fresh and have to be exchanged frequently, usually once a day. Water must not be given in open jars, since it is likely to be polluted and because wetness is generally very unhealthy for hamsters (that clean themselves very carefully without the need of additional water).

In detail, the solid food components can be divided into three categories: dry, fresh, and animal food. Dry food makes up the bulk of a hamster's diet. Besides the standard rodent food sold in pet stores, most other kinds of seeds, kernels, and nuts can be given. Care should be taken to limit the amount of fat contained within the diet. Especially sunflower seeds, nuts, almonds. and sesame are most nutritive and are to be considered as a treat rather than as basic food. All kinds of grain. rice, noodles (dry), dry pea] and lentils on the other hand can be provided less restrictively: about 120 g for a medium hamster and, depending on size, about half the amount for a dwarf hamster is sufficient. Bread and similar bakery products contain many ingredients (e.g. yeast) that can trouble the hamster's digestion system. They should be given in small amounts for gnawing or be replaced by special wafers as found in pet stores. All dry food should be appropriate in size. Especially small hamsters often cannot cope well with large seeds, even if they are sold under the label "hamster food". Bird food like millet is a noteworthy alternative for small hamsters.

Hay, although also belonging to the dry food category, can be provided in large amounts at any time. It does not contain notable amounts of fat, still is liked by most hamsters, supports the hamster's digestion system, serves as a hiding place, and is often used for nest building. In addition it is cheap and can even be produced in your own garden easily.

Fresh food is also an important part of the hamster's diet. As mentioned above, cucumber is a good supplement of water. Fresh grass, carrot, all kinds of lettuce, leaves and even branches' of (non-poisonous) plants are also no problem in general. However, no conifer wood must be fed since resin is poisonous for hamsters. In smaller amounts, grown hamsters also appreciate apple, pear, sweet paprika, tomato (only red parts), banana, mango, strawberry, and even small pieces of orange. Too much sweet fruits on the other hand are not healthy. All kinds of cabbage should be avoided, since they may cause flatulence. which is quite dangerous for the hamster's sensitive digestion system.

Very young hamsters (6-8 Weeks) should eat only carrots and small grains. Even water can damage their digestion system and be a deadly danger. Ill hamsters are also preferably provided with a more conservative diet. If accepted, herbs can also help to strengthen the hamster's health, though they cannot replace a veterinarian in case of a disease. Daisies (the flowers, not the stems or leaves) and dandelions are likewise appreciated. Plants used for hamster foods should never be placed near open windows because hamsters are more sensitive to chemical pollutions, due to their small body weight.

Finally animal food is a major component of some hamsters' natural food. As pets, a large part of this can be replaced by dry food. Still, hamsters need some animal proteins for their health. While some people like to provide living insects from pet stores to their hamsters, others will prefer to give them dry dog biscuits. Some hamsters are known to accept yoghurt (natural, without sweet ingredients) or soft cheese (low fat, not too salty), and in any case egg noodles are usually taken gratefully. If (dry or soft) dog or cat food is given, then the fat content has to be checked carefully. Furthermore, it must not contain molasses, which would harm the hamster.

In addition, a special salt stone (available in pet stores) belongs in every hamster cage. Although this huge amount of mineral salt is hardly used up by generations of hamsters, it is necessary for their life. Vitamin additives for rodents are not required and usually fresh vegetables are to be preferred. If the hamster is diseased or ill-nourished, vitamins or medications may be needed.

It might be noted that many hamsters tend to carry away food from their food source (by carrying it in their cheek pouches) and hoard it away in a cache hidden somewhere inside their container. These caches, when combined with hamster urine or a leaky water source and poor airflow, can grow mould or start to rot, creating a hazardous environment for the hamster. To keep this from happening, clean hamster cages frequently. It is because of this behavior that hamsters got their name. The German word for hoard is "hamstern."

There are also many foods that a hamster should never eat. This includes all kinds of human sweets, such as chocolate or candy, which are unhealthy and even dangerous. Furthermore, poisonous plants (also check indoor plants if the hamster is taken outside its housing) constitute a considerable danger. Other than this, mainly the various unhealthy and chemically treated products usually consumed by humans can cause problems.

Campbells dwarf hamsters are especially sensitive to Diabetes mellitus. and other dwarf hamster species may be somewhat sensitive too. Diabetes mellitus in hamsters is often caused by intake of simple sugar. Therefore it is essential to avoid hamster food and snacks containing molasses, honey, sugar, fruit sugar or other sweet stuff. Intake of sweet fruit should be limited to small snacks. Even with golden hamsters it may be useful to follow these guideline in order to avoid overweight and digestion disturbances.

Bedding Edit

Bedding is an important part of a hamster's environment. They sleep in it, walk on it, play in it, burrow in it, bury in it and use it as a litter. Therefore, it is important to provide a safe, comfortable form of bedding for any hamster. There are several options available when it comes to bedding. In the past, pine shavings and cedar shavings were a popular form of bedding until it was determined that the phenols found in pine and cedar shavings can cause serious respiratory problems in hamsters. Therefore, pine and cedar bedding should never be used even though it continues to be sold. Aspen shavings are a safe alternative to pine and cedar bedding. Other safe bedding alternatives include corn cob bedding, bedding made of recycled wood pulp (such as the brand Carefresh), newspaper pellets (such as the brand Yesterday's News), as well as others.

Reproduction and longevity Edit

Hamsters typically live no more than two to four years in captivity, less than that in the wild. Because of their short life expectancy, hamsters mature quickly and can begin reproducing at a young age (two months). Left to their own devices, hamsters will produce several litters a year with several babies in each litter. Male and female hamsters are therefore usually kept in separate enclosures to prevent the addition of unwanted offspring. Extreme care should be taken when breeding hamsters because if the female is not in heat there is the possibility of her being violent towards the male - with possibly fatal consequences.

Also, remember that if the room temperature gets low enough (below about 65°F / 18°c) the hamster will go into hibernation. This can be very dangerous to your hamsters health, as once a hamster goes into hibernation its body may not be strong enough to properly wake up again. Please, don't assume that your pet is dead because it stops moving. It may just be hibernating. To get a hamster to go out of hibernation it needs to be moved into a warmer location and allowed to slowly return to temperature. Do not shock or startle a hamster in this situation.